Friday, September 4, 2020
Zea Mays Mendelian Inheritance Pattern Mendelian Genetics Rough Draft Speculation I (Theory of Segregation) At anaphase I of meiosis, gamete arrangement causes a partition of alleles in a diploid living being. At the point when the chromosomes separate every individual will get an equivalent possibility of acquiring a predominant or passive allele from the mother or father. Since a pale skinned person and green posterity were seen inside a similar age, the guardians must be heterozygous since two latent alleles must be acquired by the posterity to communicate a passive pale skinned person quality after Mendels 3:1 (green: pale skinned person) proportion. Speculation II (Theory of Independent Assortment) During metaphase I of meiosis, the allele sets of various qualities will autonomously isolate from one another during the arrangement of gametes. The legacy of an allele is autonomous of different sets of alleles because of arbitrary arrangement of chromosomes. Since there were two heterozygous plants for both tallness and shading and were crossed, their posterity will follow Mendels proportion of 9:3:3:1. Materials Methods Acquiring and Maintaining Corn To evaluate the legacy examples of Zea Mays (corn plants) that contain chlorophyll and no chlorophyll and whether the phenotypes tallness is typical or overshadow in green or pale skinned person plants, the examination was directed at Pacific Lutheran Universitys Carol Sheffels Quigg Greenhouse. The plate of corn plants were checked under fake lights, controlled temperature, and watered by an understudy specialist for roughly fourteen days. Deciding Green versus Pale skinned person Seven plate of monohybrid corn plants were watched, and the stature and shading were utilized to depict the plants phenotype. Deciding Normal versus Smaller person Green versus Pale skinned person Five plate of dihybrid corn plants were seen to recognize green and pale skinned person from ordinary and diminutive person. For the dihybrid cross, they were watched utilizing the legacy of two qualities, shading, and tallness. The ordinary green stature plants are predominant introduced themselves as tall, spread out, and leaves were smaller, though the pale skinned person typical tallness plants are passive and were depicted as slender, absence of chlorophyll, and were wrinkly. The green diminutive person plants had chlorophyll and were shorter, while the pale skinned person predominate plants showed a wrinkled surface and earthy colored leaves. In the event that a portion of the corn plants showed earthy colored or passed on over the course, they were overlooked from this investigation. Information Analysis Deciding the phenotypic proportion of the dihybrid cross, of the typical green stature just as green-predominate, pale skinned person ordinary tallness, and pale skinned person overshadow seedlings, their anticipated frequencies were resolved utilizing a Punnet square to ascertain the potential genotypes and pale skinned person posterity to be available. Once these were resolved, they were registered to finish up the frequencies for the monohybrid and dihybrid cross through a Chi2 test to get the normal and watched values. Results Table 1: Compares heterozygous seedlings that show the anticipated number of green (G) and pale skinned person (W) while watching the phenotypic characteristics of chlorophyll and non-chlorophyll plants by Mendels first law of Segregation, (N=424) Zea Mays. Phenotype Anticipated # of posterity Watched # of posterity G (chlorophyll) 318 354 W (non-chlorophyll) 106 70 The watched qualities were near the phenotype expectation in the monohybrid cross, 75% showed a prevailing attribute, and 25% a passive characteristic. The normal and watched, (X2= 12, df = 1, p > 0.05), were not measurably noteworthy. Table 2: Compares the anticipated and watched phenotypes of green ordinary and diminutive person stature and pale skinned person typical and predominate tallness posterity phenotypes as anticipated by Mendels Theory of Independent Assortment to the quantity of watched phenotypes. Phenotype Anticipated # of posterity Watched # of posterity Green/Normal Green/Dwarf Pale skinned person/Normal 152 51 51 151 71 15 Pale skinned person/Dwarf 16 34 Watched attributes of ordinary versus overshadow green plants and pale skinned person plants, the phenotypic frequencies expected worth didn't follow Mendels proportion of 9:3:3:1. The watched qualities, (X2 = 53.5, df = 3, p Ends Ã Ã¢ Our investigation bolsters the Mendelian legacy example of Zea Mays that both the parent strains on the monohybrid cross (Table 1) were heterozygous. The normal and watched, (X2= 12, df = 1, p > 0.05), were measurably huge with Mendels first law of isolation communicating green or pale skinned person following the phenotype proportion of 3:1. While, the parent strains on the dihybrid cross (Table 2) the watched qualities for the pale skinned person ordinary and pale skinned person predominate (X2 = 53.5, df = 3, p
Posted by Sky Bundy at 4:13 AM
Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Bliss AND MORALITY - Term Paper Example In light of the focuses raised by temperance morals, an individual is being good when he is performing moral acts. Along these lines, the imperative for developing a notoriety for being highminded is through performing acts that are good or idealistic which makes the individual gets good or upright. This is the core of her contention in regards to the alleged self-rule of joy and ethical quality with one another. Aristotle proposes Ã¢â¬Å"being good will make you happyÃ¢â¬ (qtd. in Vitrano 4), which Vitrano contends saying that the profound quality and scholarly character of an individual don't naturally prompt joy (3). In her words, Vitrano states Ã¢â¬Å"we do discover glad immoralists, individuals who intentionally defy the guidelines of society and seem unaffected by itÃ¢â¬ (3). Vitrano makes a conceivable clarification for her decision that an individual who seems, by all accounts, to be good needs first to perform highminded acts or by being righteous. One can't set up the ir picture as an idealistic individual without doing acts that have natural virtues in it. I concur with Vitrano that an appearance of an upright individual involves the real doing of things which are regarded ethical. For example, a president isn't viewed as an upright individual without acting like one, for example, canceling capital punishment since it is professional life. On the off chance that the president does the inverse by marking the maintenance of that death penalty, on a philosophical point of view, he gives off an impression of being shameless by doing the specific inverse of a temperate demonstration. In view of Aristotelian viewpoint, good or scholarly ethics are the way to satisfaction; which means, inability to seem righteous by not performing moral acts doesn't satisfy an individual. Be that as it may, I do concur with Vitrano that ethical demonstrations don't really result to joy since it is a free area separated from profound quality and knowledge. This has addi tionally a similar rationale with what Martin says, Ã¢â¬Å"Individuals favored with each favorable luck can be troubled on the grounds that they are discouraged, and people with minimal favorable luck can at present be happyÃ¢â¬ (8). Similarly that fortune doesn't mean joy, doing moral acts additionally doesn't consequently prompt satisfaction. PascalÃ¢â¬â¢s Wager: Similarities and Differences with VitranoÃ¢â¬â¢s Christine VitranoÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective on joy and profound quality offers a few likenesses with PascalÃ¢â¬â¢s Wager. Both Vitrano and Pascal recognized the subjectivity among people as far as thinking their condition of joy and their religion. Vitrano states that joy can't be understood on the volume of material belongings an individual has or the good and scholarly reason for their activities (3). Bliss is when people see their lives decidedly, yet fortune or getting things done with ethical quality and scholarly reason as establishments (Vitrano 3). At the end of the day, human joy relies upon the individual viewpoint of the individual with respect to the manner in which the person in question lives. This view is epitomized in the Ã¢â¬Å"life fulfillment viewÃ¢â¬ that follows the subjectivity of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s reason for being in a condition of satisfaction (Vitrano 3). On one hand, Blaise Pascal in his work Pensees, epitomized in his Wager the justification behind each religion. In a similar case as Mathematics accepts the presence of an endless number in spite of the fact that its appearance has not yet been seen, a similar case applies to the presence of God. In PascalÃ¢â¬â¢s Wager, he evaluates that God is Ã¢â¬Å"infinitely incomprehensibleÃ¢â¬ in light of the fact that he isn't, by proclivity, identified with us, and that he has neither Ã¢â¬Å"
Posted by Sky Bundy at 2:04 PM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Question: Examine about the Analysis Of Deep River Rock Case Study. Answer: Presentation Profound River Rock entered the Irish market in the year 1994 and has additionally experienced colossal development in the following hardly any years. Profound River Rock is considered as a top notch water bottle organization of the Irish beginning where the water is sourced from the cold slopes of the Co Antrim. The water is additionally viewed as wealthy in magnesium, calcium, sodium and potassium. The organization has extended its pack size and has additionally offered a helpful size to the motivation behind hydration (Wright and Kadir 2015). The association has propelled the 1 liter pack in the year 2015 in light of the more noteworthy needs of the buyers. Profound River Rock is for the most part enthusiastic about empowering the hydration related motivations behind the buyers by giving a wide scope of items and further aiding in the upgrade of physical and mental execution. Profound River Rock has propelled its new plans in the year 2016 to satisfy the necessities of the shopper s (Chan et al. 2014). Profound River Rock was changed over into a worldwide brand by the Coca-Cola Bottlers Ireland. Coca-Cola is a worldwide brand which has its quality in numerous nations on the planet and the base camp of the organization is situated in Atlanta. Georgia. Coca Cola is an association of American starting point. The deals and income of the organization has been expanding in the ongoing years and the gallon deals of Coca Cola was disseminated as, 43% in US, 37% in Mexico, Pakistan, India, Japan, Brazil and China. Profound River Rock was showcased by Coca Cola with the assistance of the dispersion and deals related information on the organization. The organization was formed into a brand with the characteristics of vital reasoning and natural showcasing. Profound River Rock had become a static brand in the year 1999 with a portion of 5.2% and the improvement was required in the organization if it somehow managed to make due in the market (Ie.coca-colahellenic.com. 2018). Investigation of the item and the part Ireland water showcase examination The filtered water showcase in Ireland has been developing in a quick pace since the most recent couple of years. The individuals of Ireland appear to have no issues in paying for the packaged waters and they will in general spend more than millions on the filtered water each year. The residents tend to spend substantially more on the day by day utilization of filtered water when contrasted with the water charges that were taken by the administration beforehand. The water bottles consistently have a tremendous piece of the pie in the business of Ireland. Filtered water has been one of the most elevated sought after soda pop in the market of Ireland (Erevelles, Fukawa and Swayne 2016). The players in the water bottle market of Ireland are for the most part worldwide brands and they toll very well in the market also. The deals of the packaged waters have been developing in the ongoing years in both worth and volumes. The resurgent economy of the nation is fundamentally liable for the d evelopment of the deals of filtered water. The three driving players in the market of packaged waters in Ireland are, Danone Waters, Britvic Ireland and the Coca Cola HBC Ireland. The three organizations together hols around 43% of the all out piece of the pie in the nation (Fresneda and Gefen 2017). Merger of Coca Cola and Deep River Rock Ireland The complete estimation of the Ireland water advertise is around 129 million Euros and the developing pace of the market is 11% every year. Coca Cola had attempted the Deep River Rock organization in the year 1995 and the organization despite everything indicated static development in the year 1999. The Coca Cola organization at that point embraced some promoting related exercises which were identified with the advancement of the Deep River Rock brand. The filtered water showcase was at that point loaded up with numerous global and effective players and it was hard for Deep River Rock to make a situation in this industry. The fundamental purchasers of the packaged waters in Ireland were the more youthful populace of the nation (Karimi and Naghibi 2015). The more youthful gathering of shoppers had accordingly become a rewarding business sector for the organization as they bought the littler jugs substantially more and in high frequencies. The primary dread of the association was that the filtered water organizations in Ireland can get commoditised soon. The organization had then proposed imaginative promotions for their items with the goal that they pull in the intended interest group. The slogan of the principal commercial of the organization was Water you wear. In spite of the fact that the slogan had appeared to be good for nothing for some individuals, it turned into the living and brand for the organization. The bundling of the jugs was likewise changed and the character of Deep River Rock in the market was totally new (Lendel and Varmus 2015). The character of the brand was made in a special way with the assistance of different promoting channels including, web encompassing, conveyance vans, over the-line publicizing, in-store POS and some more. The correspondence with the clients was performed by the organization with the assistance of TV in the beginning periods as the financial plan was constrained. Radio was likewise utilized as a mode of publicizing for the organization. Another spending plan was infused in the organization in the year 2003 and the following phase of advancements were presented by the organization (Ã ½k 2015). The relationship with the buyers were improved and the organization presented two new publicizing efforts with the names, Convenience Store and Changing room. The notices were then positioned on the bustling stations like Dublin with the goal that the compass of the organization can be expanded further (Matei, Antonovici and Savulescu 2015). The second period of the showcasing capacities began from the year 2005 and is being proceeded till right now. The following promoting effort had the slogan of Purer than you. This was trailed by the adjustments in bundling of the items and this helped the association in making a brand in Ireland. The Purer than you named battle of Deep River rick was propelled in the year 2005 and numerous new TV notices were likewise presented in the market. These commercials gave Deep River Rock the highest situation in the market of Ireland. Over the most recent 10 years the organization has been developing ceaselessly and the credit of this has been given to the adjustments in the publicizing related battles of the organization. Profound River Rock has been developing in the Ireland showcase from the year 1999 and the organization has accomplished record deals in the 2016. The significant purpose for the nonstop achievement of the organization is the inventive promoting approach that has been st ructured throughout the years (Rozdolskaya et al. 2014). The scope of items that are offered by the organization is additionally expanding and it is currently ready to pull in an ever increasing number of clients towards the brand. The different results of the organization have been moved to no calories sugar free items. The pack sizes of the items are likewise expanding and is giving wellbeing related advantages to the shoppers. The organization has as of late presented the Think Straight HYDRATE crusade and has propelled items like, Deep River Rock Revive Magnesium which gives consolation to the shoppers to begin with hydration and remain ahead (Whalen et al. 2016). The other item that was propelled under this battle was named as Deep River Rock Revive Zinc which asks the customers to begin with hydration and remain ahead. Two other creative results of the organization were propelled with the names, Deep River Rock Relax Mint and Deep River Rock Relax Lavender. The medical advantages gave by the results of the organization are fundamenta l factors that pulls in the customers of all age gatherings (Wright et al. 2015). Proposals Advancement has been the fundamental element of the Deep River Rock brand and this can additionally assist the organization with increasing its deals in the market and hold the position that it has made in the business. The drawn out promoting of Deep River Rock has been perceived by the IAPI ADFX Awards. The organization had the option to fabricate its image over the most recent 10 years with the assistance of the publicizing strategies. DRR can keep up its situation by adding more items to its range with the goal that they can arrive at more clients. The organization can likewise focus on worldwide extension as Coca Cola is a known worldwide brand in numerous nations in Europe and Asia. The brand estimation of Coca Cola can be of colossal assistance for the expanding of piece of the pie of Deep River Rock. Profound River Rock can point towards expanding its client reach with the assistance of internet based life which can help them in expanding the client base and reach. Profound R iver Rock as of now has a page in Twitter and Facebook and the promoting of the items in these pages can end up being viable for the organization. Extension of the organization in different nations and providing their items to the worldwide clients will help them in further expanding their piece of the pie and keeping up their top situation also. The remarkable medical advantages that are given by the items can act the selling highlight for the association in the market. This will empower Deep River Rock to arrive at new statures in the market. References Chan, F.T., Nayak, A., Raj, R., Chong, A.Y.L. also, Manoj, T., 2014. An imaginative gracefully chain execution estimation framework joining innovative work (RD) and promoting policy.Computers Industrial Engineering,69, pp.64-70. Erevelles, S., Fukawa, N. what's more, Swayne, L., 2016. Large Data buyer examination and the change of marketing.Journal of Business Research,69(2), pp.897-904. Fresneda, J. what's more, Gefen, D., 2017. Applying Text Analysis to Determine Factors That Increase the Assessed Usefulness of Online Product Reviews: An Abstract. InCreating Marketing Magic and Innovative Future Marketing Trends(pp. 1405-1406). Springer, Cham. Ie.coca-colahellenic.com. (2018).Deep RiverRock. [online] Available at: https://ie.coca-colahellenic.com/en/brands-and-battles/investigate our-brands-and-items/profound riverrock/[Accessed 5 Mar. 2018]. Karimi, S. furthermore, Naghibi, H.S., 2015. Internet based life promoting (SMM) strategie
Posted by Sky Bundy at 9:49 PM
A Journal sentiment article - Essay Example When contrasted with a similar period a year ago, JP Morgan enlisted a decrease in bond exchanging income by 21%. Also, the bank income got from the home loan decreased to 84%. Significant perspective that caused the terrible showing by the bank was because of vulnerabilities that encompassed the US economy to the extent loaning to buyers and exchanging volumes are concerned. Being one of the Wall Street banks to post the decreased income, JP Morgan demonstrates how the money related area has been confronted with challenges in the main quarter of 2014. Moreover, larger part of the organizations claimed by the bank including the business loaning and the Mastercards demonstrated low benefits. This came about to decreased complete income for the bank in the primary quarter a viewpoint that may bring about decrease of yearly income if the pattern of the low execution in the budgetary segment proceeds in the rest of the quarters. As indicated by the bank, the net gain tumbled to $5.27 bil lion which is equal to $1.28 per share structure the $6.53bn, or $1.59 per share which was knowledgeable about a similar period in 2013. As per the examiners, the bank gaining per share was required to remain at $1.40 per share. Be that as it may, this was not accomplished because of the decrease in net income which experienced 8.5% tumble to remain at $22.99bn while the bank anticipated that all out income should remain at $24.53billion. Thus, in the premarket exchanging, JP shares marked down by 3.3% to sell at $55.50 going amiss from $61 most significant expenses that the bank has kept up throughout the previous 13 years. This is a significant pointer of lackluster showing of the bank a perspective that may result to low degree of trust from the clients just as speculators. In spite of the low execution by the JP Morgan, Jamie Dimon, the CEO shows that the biggest bank in US is making trust in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. As the aftereffect of
Posted by Sky Bundy at 4:44 AM
Friday, August 21, 2020
How to Write a Final PaperYou might be the type of student who has trouble sitting through a course, let alone a final paper, and this is one of the first things that you need to think about when you want to know how to write a final paper. The syllabus is usually quite long and has very little room for creative ideas or new concepts. On top of that, a lot of the material will be very boring and don't give enough information to the student in question, so it becomes even more difficult to write a quality paper.But, the key to writing a final paper is to not let it get to you. If you feel that you are struggling, you should start looking for ways to get some help. There are several writing help resources that will help you become a better writer. And with the right kind of help, you can achieve your goal of writing a final paper, without losing your cool.The next step to how to write a final paper is to look for the types of topics that you find interesting. You can pick up a book tha t is about particular subjects or go online and do a search for information that interests you. This will make it easier for you to write a final paper that is enjoyable to read and that can help to satisfy your professor's expectations.You can also use a computer to help you learn how to write a final paper. There are several programs that allow you to choose the topic that you want to cover in the final paper. You can also look for videos on how to write a final paper on the internet. You can also use resources such as books and sites to learn how to write a final paper effectively.With the right type of help, you can learn how to write a final paper quickly and easily. The different resources available online will help you learn how to use common writing software and to figure out how to write a final paper without having to spend hours trying to figure it out. The majority of these types of courses will have step-by-step instructions. If you find the right resource for how to wr ite a final paper, it will be much easier for you to master the process of writing a final paper in a short amount of time.The problem with how to write a final paper is that there are many students who struggle with this part of their degree. However, you don't have to fall into this category if you get help and start working on your paper early. The important thing is to know that your professor will always review your work and make suggestions on how to improve it. So it will be important for you to always be working on your paper at least once a week to keep it moving forward.Remember that how to write a final paper is something that will stay with you for years to come. Because of this, you should make sure that you are able to write a good paper and retain it as well. Even if it takes you a while to get used to the style and to write a good final paper, there is no harm in trying.One of the main factors in how to write a final paper is learning how to make it more entertaining and interesting. There are many options available to you online and offline that will help you master the skill of how to write a final paper.
Posted by Sky Bundy at 7:31 PM
Tuesday, August 4, 2020
Book Riotâs Deals of the Day for December 15th, 2019 Sponsored by Read Harder Journal, a reading log brought to you by Book Riot. These deals were active as of this writing, but may expire soon, so get them while theyâre hot! Todays Featured Deals The Likeness by Tana French for $1.99. Get it here, or just click on the cover image below. The Power by Naomi Alderman for $3.99. Get it here, or just click on the cover image below. The Hole: A Novel by Hye-young Pyun and translated by Sora Kim-Russell for $1.99. Get it here, or just click on the cover image below. Here and Now and Then: A Novel by Mike Chen for $2.99. Get it here, or just click on the cover image below. In Case You Missed Yesterdays Most Popular Deals Florida by Lauren Groff for $4.99. Get it here, or just click on the cover image below. The Dragon Republic (The Poppy War Book 2) by R. F. Kuang for $2.99. Get it here, or just click on the cover image below. Previous Daily Deals That Are Still Active As Of This Writing (Get em While Theyre hot!): Goldie Vance Vol. 1 by Hope Larson, illustrated by Brittney Williams for $4.49 Guapa by Saleem Haddad for $1.99 The Unlikely Escape of Uriah Heep by H. G. Parry for $2.99 Something in the Water by Catherine Steadman for $2.99 The Future of the Mind: The Scientific Quest to Understand, Enhance, and Empower the Mind by Michio Kaku for $2.99 The Priory of the Orange Tree by Samantha Shannon for $1.99 What Doesnt Kill You Makes You Blacker: A Memoir in Essays by Damon Young for $2.99 The Rage of Dragons by Evan Winter for $2.99 Ten Women by Marcela Serrano, translated by Beth Fowler for $3.99 Empire of Sand by Tasha Suri for $4.99 Queen of the Conquered by Kacen Callender for $2.99 Internment by Samira Ahmed for $3.49 Blackfish City by Sam J. Miller for $1.99 Travels by Michael Crichton for $1.99 A Prince on Paper by Alyssa Cole for $1.99 Invasive by Chuck Wendig for $1.99 Marlena by Julie Buntin for $1.99. The Dragon Republic by R.F. Kuang for $2.99 Slayer by Kiersten White for $1.99 Chasing Down a Dream by Beverly Jenkins for $2.99 The Field Guide to the North American Teenager by Ben Philippe for $1.99 The Ten Thousand Doors of January by Alix E. Harrow for $2.99 I Believe in a Thing Called Love by Maurene Goo for $2.99 Im Telling the Truth, but Im Lying by Bassey Ikpi for $2.99 Upstream: Selected Essays by Mary Oliver for $4.99 Vita Nostra by Marina and Sergey Dyachenko, translated by Julia Meitov Hersey for $1.99 Opposite of Always by Justin A. Reynolds for $1.99 All About Love: New Visions by bell hooks for $1.99 How to Live Safely in a Science Fictional Universe by Charles Yu for $2.99 News of the World by Paulette Jiles for $2.99 A Woman is No Man by Etaf Rum for $2.99 Dont Call Us Dead by Danez Smith for $2.99 Wild Beauty by Anna-Marie McLemore for $2.99 The Gilded Wolves by Roshani Chokshi for $2.99 Fatality in F (A Gethsemane Brown Mystery Book 4) by Alexia Gordon for $4.99 Reckless by Selena Montgomery for $3.99 Fruit of the Drunken Tree by Ingrid Rojas Contreras for $4.99 Black Water Rising by Attica Locke for $1.99 The Bone Witch by Rin Chupeco for $0.99 Revelation Space by Alastair Reynolds for $2.99 The Ensemble: A Novel by Aja Gabel for $4.99 Cant Escape Love by Alyssa Cole for $1.99 Brown Girl in the Ring by Nalo Hopkinson for $5.99 Ark by Veronica Roth for $1.99 Ten Women by Marcela Serrano for $3.99 Flights by Olga Tokarczuk for $4.99 The Price of Salt by Patricia Highsmith for $0.99 Ormeshadow by Priya Sharma for $3.99 Sisters of the Vast Black by Lina Rather for $3.99 Prophecy by Ellen Oh for $2.99 Along for the Ride by Mimi Grace for $2.99 Sign up for our Book Deals newsletter and get up to 80% off books you actually want to read.
Posted by Sky Bundy at 5:34 PM
Thursday, June 25, 2020
In both ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËThe Wife of BathÃ¢â¬â¢s Prologue and TaleÃ¢â¬â¢ and SheridanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËThe RivalsÃ¢â¬â¢, the question of morality is not a straightforward one, as there is tension surrounding the purpose of marriage and traditional social expectations. However, ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s exploration of passion and whether lust and virtue can co-exist is far more controversial that that of Sheridan, who in a true Georgian fashion, only lightly challenges contemporary attitudes towards morality. In both works, the sense of resolution is limited and slightly ambiguous as the audience is left uncertain as to whether the writersÃ¢â¬â¢ promote virtue over passion or simply reject their protagonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ efforts due to the inevitability of masculine authority in social hierarchy. In `The Wife of BathÃ¢â¬â¢s PrologueÃ¢â¬â¢ Chaucer depicts Alisoun as a fiery temptress whose controversial perspective of marriage strongly challenges medieval attitudes towards virtue and godliness. This lascivious portrayal of Alisoun would have been deeply displeasing to a medieval audience who would have valued virtuous living and the avoidance of sin above all the elements in Christian teaching. Therefore, ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s Alisoun would have been a thoroughly indecent figure, as arguably for a medieval audience, the co-existence of lust and Christian values would be impossible. Throughout the novel, Chaucer presents Alisoun as an immoral figure by contemporary standards as she not only chooses to reject the authority of the Church on marriage and instead uses this same authority to justify her own lustful nature. Her controversial stand-point of marriage is presented through ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s exploration of the wo that is in marriage, whereby the wo viewed by Alisoun differs to that of the clergy. For the Church, the wo in marriage is the act of sex which despite its function as a religious sacrament, was perceived as a dirty act by the clergy which distances a person from God. Alisoun recognises that virginitee is a parfit state, however she chooses to revel in her promiscuity as she nil envye no virginitee. However, Alisoun is not an adulterer, and so her immorality is not through the fact that she engages in sexual acts with her `five housboundesÃ¢â¬â¢ but that she has manipulated the authority of the Church to fulfil her sexual desires and remains conspicuously childless in the process, despite recognising that God bad us to wexe and multiply. The irony of this claim clearly shows that Alisoun is indeed aware that she is unvirtuous as the only way she can justify promiscuity is by using the patriarchal system. Therefore, despite the fact that some feminist critics would label the Wife as an anti-patriarchal hero (Susan Gubar), she ironically rein forces negative medieval attitudes of the day. Chaucer immediately highlights AlisounÃ¢â¬â¢s misconstrued perspective on the wo that is in marriage, which suggests that the act of sex in marriage, although is frowned upon by the clergy, despite it being necessary for child-bearing. Whereas a more modern audience would be perhaps more tolerant of AlisounÃ¢â¬â¢s reasoning due to more liberal attitudes associated with free-love, ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s presentation of her is far from virtuous in keeping with conservative attitudes of the day of it being immoral, as she remains conspicuously childless, despite her assured claim that God bad us to wexe and multiply. Therefore, whereas for the clergy the wo in marriage Is associated with immorality, for Alisoun is marks the complete opposite, the idea that she lacks maistree (power), and is subjected to the restrictions imposed by patriarchal society. Whilst in `The Wife of BathÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale and PrologueÃ¢â¬â¢, the WifeÃ¢â¬â¢s views are labelled as immoral, In SheridanÃ¢â¬â¢s `The RivalsÃ¢â¬â¢, references to sex in marriage are far more implicit, as the characters labelled as immoral are those who pose some sort of challenge to the social expectations of the day. Lydia is the epitome of virginal purity at love-breathing seventeen as opposed the gat-toothed Alisoun, however her passion lies in seeking knowledge, as she languishes in her bedroom reading texts such as the The Delicate Distress and The Innocent Adulterer, a thoroughly indecent French novel frowned upon by a Georgian audience. Here, passion is not necessarily associated with sex, however the stigma attached to the longing of female education in the play is viewed with the same distaste as AlisounÃ¢â¬â¢s promiscuity in the Ã¢â¬ËThe Wife of BathÃ¢â¬â¢s PrologueÃ¢â¬â¢. Both writersÃ¢â¬â¢ therefore elude that passion, whether it is physical, or in the fo rm of female education, cannot coexist with virtue as virtue can only exist when there is social conformity. Sheridan presents this idea through the dialogue between the older generation in the play, Sir Anthony and Mrs Malaprop, who although are not exempt from SheridanÃ¢â¬â¢s criticism, fiercely believe that learning does not become of a woman and that a circulating library will cause Lydia to long for the fruit of the tree of diabolical knowledge. Sir AnthonyÃ¢â¬â¢s hot-headed attack on female education paired with references to the role of Eve in the Fall of Man in Genesis suggests that passion is sinful. Chaucer also refers to the Fall of Man in the Prologue when Alisoun speaks of EvaÃ¢â¬â¢s wikkednesse. Although these texts were written and published in different centuries, it is evident that religion always has and will continue to underpin societyÃ¢â¬â¢s general perception of passion and lust, largely associated with immorality. On the other hand, whilst ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s depiction of AlisounÃ¢â¬â¢s reasoning is flawed, her values presented in the Prologue are to a certain extent, well-justified. In the Prologue, it is clear that despite ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of Alisoun through a medieval male lens which we would expect to condition his viewpoint of women as natural inferior to men, Chaucer appears to criticise the unjust nature of patriarchy. For example, Chaucer proposes the idea that wealth and social status does not necessarily equate to chivalric code of conduct or gentillesse. The Knight in the Prologue uses his might to rafte the Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢maidenhedÃ¢â¬â¢ (virginitee) of the girl by the river. Consequently Chaucer places the fate of the Knight in the hands of the Queen, thus reversing the idea of male maistree as the queene, al at hir willÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ chose wheither she wolde him save or spille.. Therefore, whilst Alisoun is largely the subject of criticism in the Prologue, Chaucer al so highlights the immorality of men. It appears that although wealth and social status can be acquired through linage of a gentil house, gentillesse is not planted naturaleelly as a truly gentil man is one who dooth gentil dedis. Therefore, despite AlisounÃ¢â¬â¢s `immorality, it is clear that her attitudes towards chivalry are commendable. This idea is supported by feminist critics such as Jackie Shead have noted that The quest and its outcome is a salutary lesson to males about not overriding women. Indeed, evidently Chaucer is not a feminist in the same was that a modern audience would perceive one to be, however he does invite the audience to question what it is to be moral or immoral by social standards and to a great degree, the line between is ambiguous. Both Sheridan and Chaucer present females as flawed characters however alike to how Chaucer appears to admire AlisounÃ¢â¬â¢s rejection of medieval attitudes towards social-hierarchy, Sheridan also commends LydiaÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to seek independence. Both the Wife of Bath and Lydia arguably have admirable values despite being portrayed as immoral in their society. However, the dark reality of both texts is that their efforts to obtain change is largely futile as in The Rivals Lydia compromises her independence to live in unalloyed happiness with Jack and the Knight in the Prologue obtains a wife both faire and goode despite his crime. Therefore, both of the endings of these texts reinforce the inevitability of the unjust treatment of women in Patriarchal society. Chaucer makes this apparent through AlisounÃ¢â¬â¢s use of language which undermines her argument in the Prologue. Critic Elaine Treharne argues that in the Prologue, Chaucer fundamentally accomplished the depiction of a woman who is undermined by her own proxility and hyperbole, and who, furthermore, exhibits virtually all the elements of womensÃ¢â¬â¢ stereotypical language. Evidence of TreharneÃ¢â¬â¢s criticism is reflected by ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s use of hyperbole and vernacular language paired with references with ecclesiastical connotations. For example, Alisoun places great emphasis on the auctoritee of the scripture when referencing to the Apostle, the Parables of Solomon and Jobes pacience however, she undermines this authority when adopting language which reinforces her immoral nature such as my bel chose (pretty thing- a euphemism for her vagina) and For hadde myn housbonde pissed on a wal. To conclude, both writers provide an indefinite answer the question of whether their characters are immoral or virtuous however through this deliberate ambiguity, it is apparent that there is tension between the views of men and women, ordinary folk and clergy men towards morality and virtue. Both female protagonists are motivated by their desire for independence, whether it is sexually or through female education. Arguably, the immoral presentation of Alisoun is far more controversial than SheridanÃ¢â¬â¢s Lydia, however interestingly both their efforts are unsuccessful due to the futility of passion and lust in patriarchal society.
Posted by Sky Bundy at 12:25 PM